The Importance of Adequate Hydration

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“Water is defined as an essential nutrient because it is required in amounts that exceed the body’s ability to produce it. All biochemical reactions occur in water. It fills the spaces in and between cells and helps form structures of large molecules such as protein and glycogen. Water is also required for digestion, absorption, transportation, dissolving nutrients, elimination of waste products and thermoregulation” (regulation of body temperature) (Kleiner, 1999).Hydration fact sheet- facebook (1)

cucumber-salad-food-healthy-37528mineral-water-lime-ice-mint-158821Key Facts 

Up to 2 litres of Water is lost daily due to bodily functions, such as perspiration, respiration, urination and defecation.

Diuretic substances in your diet such as caffeinated beverages, alcohol, high sugar and salty foods will increase water loss from the body.

Water requirements range from 8-10 glasses per day depending on diet and physical activity levels. As we age, we have a diminished sense of thirst and tend to drink less fluid, although water is still required. It is therefore important to ensure we drink an adequate amount of water, even in the absence of thirst.

Water can be consumed from drinking pure water as well as from eating certain foods. Depending on diet, up to 50% of your daily water intake can be derived from foods provided they are high in water content such as fruit, salad, soup and vegetables (i.e. iceberg lettuce and cucumber).

How dehydration impacts your skin condition

Key signs of mild to moderate dehydration include increased sensation of pexels-photo-136871pain, thirst, stiffness, headaches, lack of concentration, fatigue and skin problems.

The skin contains approximately 30% water. “Water intake, particularly in individuals with low initial water intake, can improve skin thickness and density and offsets transepidermal water loss (water lost through the skin surface)” (Popkin, Rosenberg & D’Anci, 2010). Hydration improves skin resiliency, elasticity and texture.

The water content in the skin contributes to important functions of the skin such as the development of a healthy skin barrier. The skin barrier guards the skin from microbial infections and infiltration of foreign substances which can cause skin flare ups.

Water deficiency can also lead to impaired skin processes, which can then worsen skin disorders such as dermatitis, psoriasis, acne and rosacea (Rodrigues, Palma, Tavares Marques & Bujan Varela, 2015).

Key tips to keeping hydrated

Create a routine: If you aren’t used to drinking water on a regular basis, start with four glasses of water a day. One glass on rising, one mid-morning, one mid-afternoon and one on retiring. This eliminates 4 out 8 glasses per day. Once you establish this routine, start adding additional glasses of water throughout the day, for example before meals

Convenience: Keep water with you at all times. Keep a refillable water bottle with you at work, in your car, and to take with you when you go on walks etc. Get used to sipping on water as part of your daily routine. Convenience is key, otherwise if it’s out of sight, it’s often out of mind!

Flavour: If you don’t like the taste of water, there are several ways to make it more enticing. Add some fresh herbs like mint, or fresh fruit, or a very small amount of juice (just enough to add a hint of flavour).

Variety: Mix up your water variety and add in some natural sparkling mineral water.

Eat foods high in water content: Eat plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables, in doing so will assist in keeping your body hydrated (this information should not replace any dietary information given by your psoriasis eczema clinic practitioner).

Be aware of cravings: if you are craving salty foods as this can be a signal from the body that you are dehydrated. Try drinking a glass of water before reaching for salty foods.

For more information on the health benefits of water and charts for daily consumption visit: https://www.nrv.gov.au/nutrients/water

Reference:

  1. Popkin, B., Rosenberg, I., & D’Anci, K. (2010). Water, Hydration and Health. National Institute of Health68(8), 439–458. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00304.x
  2. Kleiner, S. (1999). Water. Journal Of The American Dietetic Association99(2), 200-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0002-8223(99)00048-6
  3. Rodrigues, L., Palma, L., Tavares Marques, L., & Bujan Varela, J. (2015). Dietary water affects human skin hydration and biomechanics. Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology4(411), 413. http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/ccid.s86822

HEALTHY SKIN and WATER INTAKE – PART 1

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Water is an essential element for our existence as it performs a number of vital functions in the body.  It is a key component of the fluid that forms the basis of saliva that helps us to swallow, of synovial fluids that cushion the joints and of the fluids that fill our eyeballs and lubricates our eyes. It provides the medium for by which most of the chemical reactions in the body occurs, it acts as a cushion for the nervous system (cerebrospinal fluid), allows us to get rid of waste products principally via the kidneys and urine production, and helps to regulate body temperature by the process of sweating. 1,2,3

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The body tightly controls its water volume and, under normal conditions, the volume fluctuates by less than 1% per day. Dehydration can be defined as a 1% or greater loss of body mass due to fluid loss e.g. urine, eye lubrication, sweating, breathing etc. 1,2,3

Research experiments using fluid restriction to induce dehydration, has shown that loss of body mass of about 1% can be seen after 13 hours, about 2% after 24 hours and nearly 3% after 37 hours when no fluids and only relatively dry foods are consumed. It was noted, however, that the subjects undergoing fluid restriction had a strong desire to drink and would have been unlikely to become dehydrated to such an extent accidentally. These experiments do show how quickly body fluid loss can occur and the importance of continued rehydration by the consumption of water. 1,2,3

 If water losses are not sufficiently replaced, dehydration will occur and extreme dehydration is very serious and can be fatal. More mild dehydration (about 2% loss of body weight) has been shown to result in headaches, fatigue, increased stress/anxiety, reduced physical performance and cognitive function. Some studies have refined the level of dehydration, where detectable symptoms and changes occurred, to the following: in males, dehydration of 1·59 % body weight loss and in females   1·39 % body weight loss. Such modest loss in body weight can occur in everyday activities, demonstrating the importance of maintaining optimal hydration. Taking into consideration various changes attributable to factors such as ambient temperature, physical activity, state of health, the European Food Safety Authority has recommended that the appropriate water intake should be approximately 2 litres per day for women and 3 litres per day for men. Higher water intake requirements will, of course, be higher for athletes and those that are physically active in hotter climates.4,5,6  

The Stratum Corneum (SC) of the skin consists of the essential barrier between the internal and external environment. Although most of the skin is between 2-3mm (0.10 inch)  thick, the SC plays a vital role in forming a protective barrier and helps to prevent percutaneous entry of harmful pathogens (e.g. germs) into the body. In addition to serving as a physical barrier, the SC has other important functions, including the regulation of body heat (thermoregulation), respiration and maintenance of the body’s water content – transepidermal water loss (TEWL)   Stratum Corneum properties and its protective function can be modified by various internal and external/environmental factors.7

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So what happens to human skin when the body becomes dehydrated?

Any change in the structure of the stratum corneum (SC) is potentially associated with alterations of both its barrier function and water holding capacity. Decreased hydration with reduced elasticity of the stratum corneum is responsible for cracks and fissures in the skin. The rate of TEWL is higher in dry skin than in normal skin where the integrity of the barrier function is not disturbed. The impaired barrier in skin conditions such as psoriasis and atopic eczema makes the SC less efficient in excluding substances that come in contact with the surface and patients with skin conditions e.g. atopic dermatitis are believed to be more prone to contact dermatitis than a normal population and those with psoriasis more susceptible to flare ups after exposure to chemicals.8 

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How can you tell if you are dehydrated?

One simple test is to gently pinch the skin on your hand …. hold for a few seconds and then release the skin. If the skin springs back you are not dehydrated, if the skin remains tented (turgor) then it is a sure sign that you are dehydrated and need to drink at least two glasses of water immediately. Another way of checking is the simple observation of the colour of your urine when you go to the toilet. Some charts have numerous colour options but the simple chart that the NSW Government Health Department has on their website “Beat the Heat” is probably the best and easiest to use:-

REMEMBER IF YOUR URINE IS DARKER THAN THAT INDICATED THEN YOU ARE SERIOUSLY DEHYDRATED AND SHOULD ATTEND YOUR NEAREST HOPSITAL EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT

URINE COLOUR CHART

This urine colour chart will give you an idea of whether you are drinking enough water or you are dehydrated (lost too much water from the body)

 Very Dehydrated ……. DRINK 1 litre of water 
 Dehydrated …….. DRINK 2 -3 glasses of water 
 Somewhat Dehydrated ……. Drink 1 glass of water 
 Hydrated, You are drinking enough, continue drinking as normal

http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/environment/beattheheat/Pages/urine-colour-chart.aspx

 

Also read our blog “HEALTHY SKIN and WATER INTAKE – PART 2

 

REFERENCES

  • Popkin B. M. et al.; Water, Hydration and Health; Nutr Rev. 2010 August ; 68(8): 439–458. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00304.x.
  • Benelam B. and Wyness L.; Hydration and health: a review; Journal compilation © 2010 British Nutrition Foundation Nutrition Bulletin, 35, 3–25
  • Je´quier E. and Constant ; Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration; European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2010) 64, 115–123
  • Ganio M. S. et al.; Mild dehydration impairs cognitive performance and mood of men; British Journal of Nutrition (2011), 106, 1535–1543 doi:10.1017/S0007114511002005
  • Armstrong L. E. et al.; Mild Dehydration Affects Mood in Healthy Young Women; The Journal of Nutrition Ingestive Behavior and Neurosciences; First published online December 21, 2011; doi:10.3945/jn.111.142000
  • EFSA (2008). Draft dietary reference values for water. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies, (agreed on 11 April 2008 for release for public consultation). (http://www.efsa. europa.eu/it/scdocs/doc/1459.pdf